Are you managing styles in your Word documents? A hallmark of a professionally-created template is the appearance of the Quick Style Gallery. If I open a template and see this:
I realize the person who constructed the file doesn’t know better or doesn’t care. The clue are the 4 zombie styles on the right side. If you expand the gallery, you’ll see 8 more zombie styles. These 12 are automatically generated in every new installation of Word. Nobody uses them, they just clutter the interface. If you’re managing styles, you’ll make them disappear.
These 12 can’t be deleted, they are termed built-in styles and the Delete button is disabled in the style management dialog. But in Word for Windows, there is a Style Management panel called Recommended, where you can Hide them or optionally apply Hide Until Used. This last attribute keeps the style out of the Quick Style Gallery until the first time you apply it in a document, at which time it becomes visible.
But where is the Recommended panel in Word for Mac? Did someone Hide that too? No, it’s just not an option for Mac users. Microsoft left it out (speculate at will). But all is not lost: You can still manage style visibility on the Mac, you just have to do it with XML Hacking. New hackers should read XML Hacking: An Introduction and XML Hacking: Editing in macOS before trying these steps.
When you first open an Office XML field, the content is linearized and difficult to read. In BBEdit, apply Test>Apply Text Filter>run_tidy, an add-on script for BBEdit that you can download here. Voila! Readable XML!
Managing Styles with XML Editing
Word styles are stored in word/styles.xml and word/stylesWithEffects.xml. Word 2007/2008 reads styles.xml while Word 2010/2011 and later use stylesWithEffects.xml, so whatever changes you make, do them to both files. Word doesn’t always create a styleWithEffects.xml part, so if there isn’t one in your file, just edit styles.xml. Word’s built-in styles are in the w:latentStyles part. Let’s work on that first, then deal with custom styles.
The style order in the XML file has nothing to do with the order of styles in the user interface, so it’s best to search for them. Start with the Title style. The default listing looks like this: (You may see a somewhat different collection of tags from different Word versions.)
To make this style disappear from the Quick Style Gallery, but still appear on the Styles list, just delete the w:qFormat="1" tag. If you want to remove a style not only from the Quick Style Gallery, but also from the master list of recommended styles, then don’t bother with w:qFormat="1", just remove w:semiHidden="0". Finally, to give the style the ability to remain on the Styles list, then be added to the Quick Style Gallery when it is first used, leave the other tags as is and change w:unhideWhenUsed="0" to w:unhideWhenUsed="1".
Besides the Title style, the other zombie styles you’ll probably want to remove are:
Subtitle Subtle Emphasis Emphasis Intense Emphasis Strong Quote Intense Quote Subtle Reference Intense Reference Book Title and List Paragraph
Another useful edit you can make to styles is to change the number beside w:uiPriority. Decreasing this number moves a style up the list, while increasing it moves it down. You may have noticed that editing w:uiPriority in the w:latentStyles has no effect on the position of Normal style. See Custom Styles below to solve this.
For all styles that have the same level number, they are displayed in alphabetical order. I usually rank them in the order they are likely to be used, with the body text and headings at the top, followed by bulleted, numbered and lettered styles. Often you’ll have styles that serve a function in a Word file, like unique styles that are referenced by StyleRef fields. If the user doesn’t need to apply a style, hide it. The simpler you make their interface, the fewer mistakes they can make.
The styles/stylesWithEffects XML parts contain a list of exceptions. There are many styles that remain invisible until you add an exception to the list. As an example, if you want to make the Body Text style to be at the left end of the Quick Style Gallery, you would first copy and paste the exception for Normal, then change the name to Body Text. The w:uiPriority=0 tag will ensure Body Text pops to the left end.
Managing Styles: Custom Styles
To manage custom and special styles, scroll down below the latentStyles section. Here you’ll see more verbose XML like this:
Here’s where you can change the order of Normal. Because this XML part comes after the Normal entry in latentStyles, it over-rides those settings. Any style set to 0 will appear to the left of Normal in the Style Gallery and above Normal in the Styles List.
Here’s what a custom style looks like:
<w:style w:type="paragraph" w:customStyle="1" w:styleId="Code">
<w:spacing w:after="0" w:line="240" w:lineRule="auto"/>
<w:rFonts w:ascii="Bitstream Vera Sans Mono" w:hAnsi="Bitstream Vera Sans Mono"/>
While you could edit all attributes of the style here, it’s easier to do through the user interface. But you can change the order, here set to 6.
Save the XML file. If you’re using BBEdit, you’re done. If you’re working with another editor, re-zip [Content_Types].xml plus the folders. Change the ending of the resulting Zip file to .docx and click on the Use .docx button when OS X asks. Open the file and check out the beautifully clean Quick Style Gallery, thanks to you managing styles!
This is a complex topic, so don’t feel bad if it’s hard to get working as expected. If you’re on a deadline, Brandwares can do this for you. Just email me at firstname.lastname@example.org.