OOXML Hacking: Protected Area Exceptions in Word

Microsoft doesn’t have a catchy name for this feature, but I’ll try to describe it. In Word for Windows, you can select document text, then apply Read-only protection, but with Exceptions. By default, the exception is Everyone. If we untangle the word logic, this means that the document becomes read-only except that everyone can edit the selected text. It’s a far better solution than the old protection for forms.

When this type of protection is applied, the selected areas become shaded in light yellow as a visual cue that the highlighted text remains editable. Users of Word 2016 for Mac and 2019 for Mac (including Microsoft 365 subscribers) can use these documents, but can’t produce them. At least, until now.

Light yellow areas indicate editable text
Protected area exceptions in Word

Word pros will look at the square bracket and think it’s a bookmark. It’s not. Microsoft reused the bookmark character to show a Permission Range. To add these editable ranges on a Mac, we’re going to create one manually.

To start, apply Read-only protection to the document. Use Tools>Protect Document, then check Protect document for. Click on Read only, then on OK. Save the file.

Now open the file in your XML editor. OOXML Tools in the Chrome browser is fine for this job. Open document.xml inside the word folder.

Just before the text that you want to be editable, insert a line like this:

<w:permStart w:id="883447734" w:edGrp="everyone"/>

At the end of the editable text, insert this XML:

<w:permEnd w:id="883447734"/>

The beginning and end tag must have the same 9-digit random number. Each pair of tags in a document must have a different random number.

Here is a whole paragraph marked as editable:

<w:permStart w:id="783447734" w:edGrp="everyone"/>
<w:p w14:paraId="5B68C6A9">
  <w:r>
    <w:t>To make your document look professionally produced, Word provides header, footer, cover page, and text box designs that complement each other.</w:t>
  </w:r>
</w:p>
<w:permEnd w:id="783447734"/>

Here, just one word is editable:

professionally produced, <w:permStart w:id="983447734" w:edGrp="everyone"/>Word<w:permEnd w:id="983447734"/> provides header,

It’s that simple. Save the file and distribute to users.

For any of our tips that seem too complicated, Brandwares is available to do it for you. We teach the pros!

Text Effects? Don’t! – Best Practices

The Best Practice is to NOT use Text Effects in Office. Ever.

That could have been my shortest article ever, but I guess I should explain the reasons. I’m referring to the graduated fills and lines, the glows, reflections, shadows and 3-D effects you can add to text. In the past these effects have caused some problems with ordinary shapes, but with text, they’re a disaster.

Text Effects: Bad in PDFS

Clearly, it’s not enough for most users that these effects are visually hideous. That just a natural result of the low value we assign to arts education. In many years of working with competent graphic artists, I’ve never been asked to create any template that uses these effects. Designers understand the need for restraint, users don’t. And so we get the appalling appearance of most Word and PowerPoint documents.

But the functional problem with these effects is how they affect PDFs created from Word, PowerPoint and Excel. Microsoft has no clue how to export true PostScript of the fancy effects. So they adopt a simplistic approach: flatten them to graphics. Unfortunately, this means the text vanishes, leaving behind only a pretty picture. Well, not even that. All kinds of PDF functions are impaired: Text to speech is impossible, accessibility goes right out the window, reimporting the PDF to Office is brain-dead.

I tested PDFs created in 3 ways: saving to PDF in Office, printing to Acrobat and printing to the Microsoft Print to PDF print driver that comes with Windows 10. When saving to PDF, all text with applied effects was flattened. When printing to either Acrobat or Microsoft Print to PDF, Gradient Fills, Gradient Lines and 3D Effects were flattened, while Shadows, Reflections and Glows remained as live text.

The moral is clear: when the client asks for Text Effects, just say NO!

Every AutoShape – Cool Code

There are more AutoShapes in Office than appear in the user interface. Over time, Microsoft has quietly added to the collection stored in Office. Many of the more recent shapes are used in SmartArt files, while others have no current use that I can detect. But for anyone who hacks XML or codes VBA will find this week’s download or every autoshape a useful reference.

I’m preparing to start a series on custom SmartArt files. This is a deep topic: SmartArt XML is a programming language with a Frankenstein syntax. But the starting point for any language is to get the names right. SmartArt and VBA both reference the AutoShapes collection in Office, but they use different names for the same objects. Many of the same shapes are seen in the Shapes dropdown of Office programs, but those names are also different. The main source of the VBA names are from this page: MsoAutoShapeType enumeration (Office), while the XML names come from this out-of-date listing: SmartArt AutoShapes.

So, for my own sanity, I created a Word document showing an example of each shape, along with it’s name in XML, in VBA and in the user interface. This has smoothed out my workflow, and it may help you as well.

Listing of every AutoShape

For any non-interface shapes, you can insert them into a document with code analogous to this. For PowerPoint:

Sub MakeShape()
  ActivePresentation.Slides(1).Shapes.AddShape msoShapeTrapezoid, 24, 24, 144, 144
End Sub

Change the bolded word to the shape name in the VBA MsoShapeType Name column.

Some shapes have specialized VBA commands, like callouts:

Sub MakeShape()
  ActivePresentation.Slides(1).Shapes.AddCallout msoCalloutTwo, 24, 24, 144, 144
End Sub

Callouts led me to a discovery about legacy versions. msoCalloutOne gives exactly the same result as msoCalloutTwo in current versions of Office.That seemed odd, so I ran the same macro in PowerPoint 2003 (I still have it installed for its macro recorder). In that version, msoCalloutOne creates a callout with a vertical leading line that can be moved up and down, but not at an angle. Presumably, MS found that useless and deprecated it.

Download the Word document showing every autoshape here.

OOXML Hacking: Open XML Explained

We’re proud to be hosting a free e-book Open XML Explained. Finding readable explanations of how Office Open XML works isn’t easy. Outside of the very dense published ECMA standards, most of the information exists only on the web in help pages and blog posts. Back in 2007, a developer in the Netherlands, Wouter van Vugt, published a well written PDF that goes into details about the XML formats used in Word, Excel and PowerPoint. This was originally posted on the openxmldeveloper.org website run by OOXML genius Eric White.

Eric’s site closed down some years ago and much of the content disappeared. But I’ve been able to track down a copy of Wouter’s book and have his permission to give it a new home here at Brandwares. Download Open XML Explained.

The e-book covers Excel, Word and PowerPoint in depth, covering otherwise obscure topics like table formatting, bullets and charts. It’s an excellent companion to my book, covering the theory behind my practical techniques. OOXML hackers will appreciate the explanations of all the major XML parts in an Office file, while coders will find this a useful resource in learning how to programmatically create and modify documents, workbooks and presentations.

Open XML Explained

I should note that Open XML Explained was written in 2007, so while it covers all the OOXML basics, it doesn’t have any information about newer features like the Backstage or SuperThemes. Reader David Wiggins was kind enough to find the sample files that accomapied the book. The download page has a link to them as well. Enjoy!

OOXML Hacking: Buy the Book

After years of original research, you can finally buy the book! Filled with unique information not found anywhere else, online or in print, this manual shows you how to build SuperThemes 3 different ways, how to create custom Effects Themes, how to edit the Ribbon in macOS, and much more!

OOXML Hacking: buy the book

The book expands on many of the brief articles on this site, putting them in logical order and expanding the number of examples. Author John Korchok explains how Office Open XML files work, shows you where to find each XML part and how each part can be modified. With these tools, you can provide unique services to your clients or users that you can’t find at the average Office template service bureau. To give you a better idea of what it covers, here is the Table of Contents:

Table of Contents 1
Table of Contents 2
Table of Contents 3

All techniques are covered in both Windows and macOS. The book includes a link to a downloadable text file with all the hyperlinks, XML and VBA listings, so you don’t have to retype anything from the printed page. At this time, only print copies are available, ebook versions will be here in several months. To buy the book, click here.

Uniform Rounded Corners – Cool Code

A client sent a design for a Word template that had lots of boxes and photos with uniform rounded corners. Not an unreasonable request, but Office doesn’t do that well. In PowerPoint, Word and Excel, rounded corners are proportional to the size of the shape. Making them uniform manually is picky and time-consuming. But with a dash of VBA, we can make the job easy.


The Math

As a round-cornered shape gets larger, the corner radius increases as well, in proportion to the shape size. Since we want to keep the radius the same size, we need to create a formula that makes a smaller number as the height and width increase. We need an inverse number! The simplest way to create an inverse is to divide 1 by the measurements. Then, we need a number to set the radius size: a constant. The formula looks like this: (1 / (Shape.Height + Shape.Width)) * RadiusFactor. And you thought you’d never need that high school math!

Here’s VBA code that will work in Excel, Word and PowerPoint on a selection of round-cornered boxes:

Sub RoundedCorners()
  Dim oShape As Shape, RadiusFactor!
  RadiusFactor! = 50
  For Each oShape In ActiveWindow.Selection.ShapeRange
    With oShape
      If .AutoShapeType = msoShapeRoundedRectangle Then
        .Adjustments(1) = (1 / (oShape.Height + oShape.Width)) * RadiusFactor!
      End If
    End With
  Next oShape
End Sub

Uniform Rounded Corners for the Whole Document

To run this on a whole presentation, document or workbook, we need to customize the routine for each Office program. Here’s the Excel version:

Sub RoundAllXLCorners()
  Dim oWorksheet As Worksheet, oShape As Shape, RadiusFactor!
  RadiusFactor! = 50
  For Each oWorksheet In ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets
    For Each oShape In oWorksheet.Shapes
      With oShape
        If .AutoShapeType = msoShapeRoundedRectangle Then
          .Adjustments(1) = (1 / (oShape.Height + oShape.Width)) * RadiusFactor!
        End If
      End With
    Next oShape
  Next oWorksheet
End Sub

To do the same in PowerPoint

Sub RoundAllPPCorners()
  Dim oSlide As Slide, oShape As Shape, RadiusFactor!
  RadiusFactor! = 50
  For Each oSlide In ActivePresentation.Slides
    For Each oShape In oSlide.Shapes
      With oShape
        If .AutoShapeType = msoShapeRoundedRectangle Then
          .Adjustments(1) = (1 / (oShape.Height + oShape.Width)) * RadiusFactor!
        End If
      End With
    Next oShape
  Next oSlide
End Sub

And finally, for Word

Sub RoundAllWDCorners()
  Dim oShape As Shape, RadiusFactor!
  RadiusFactor! = 50
  For Each oShape In ActiveDocument.Shapes
    With oShape
      If .AutoShapeType = msoShapeRoundedRectangle Then
        .Adjustments(1) = (1 / (oShape.Height + oShape.Width)) * RadiusFactor!
      End If
    End With
  Next oShape
End Sub
Before: Rounded Corners, but not Uniform
Rounded Corners, but not Uniform

The Word version is a little simpler because a Word document is one big object, while Excel and PowerPoint both have multiple objects for each worksheet and slide, respectively. But the similarites point out that when you’re searching online for VBA code, finding something for a different program and modifying it can be a huge time-saver. By far, Excel has way more code written for it, so Excel VBA sites can be a fruitful source for Word and PowerPoint code ideas.

After: Uniform Rounded Corners
Uniform Rounded Corners

These macros have been tested under both Windows and macOS and work well under both.

To use these macros with other shapes, please see my article Every AutoShape – Cool Code for a downloadable reference file showing all AutoShapes along with their XML and VBA names. Then replace msoShapeRoundedRectangle with the mso shape name you need.

Content Controls for macOS – Cool Code

Content Controls are an improved form of fillable form field, but the Word for Mac user interface doesn’t include Content Controls for macOS. I show you how to sidestep this limitation to be able to create superior fillable forms.

Microsoft Word for Windows has three different types of fields to use for fillable forms. The oldest of these are Legacy Form Fields, which exist in every version of Word, Windows and Mac, but not DOS, back to the dawn of time. Legacy form fields require the document to be protected for forms, which closes down many formatting options even on unprotected sections. These are the only form fields available in the Mac program interface. Windows version also have ActiveX controls. These generally have a crude appearance. They don’t work at all on Mac versions of Word.

Finally, we have the newest type of form fields, Content Controls. These were introduced on Windows in Word 2007. The collection of controls was expanded a little in 2010 and a little more in 2013. Word 2008 and 2011 can’t use or create them, but in Word 2016 for Mac, the program started honoring Content Controls created in Windows, so they work as expected on both platforms. Unfortunately, the tools to add and modify them are still not in the program.


Content Controls for macOS: What Are They?

While Legacy Form Fields have only 3 types (Text field, Checkbox and Dropdown), there are 9 (or 10, depending on how you count) types of Content Controls. Here’s a look at each type:

Plain Text and Rich Text
Plain Text and Rich Text Appearance

These look identical on the screen. The screen shot shows what they look like unselected (top) and selected (bottom). The Plain Text control is most similar to the Legacy Text form field. All the text has the same formatting and you can’t include other types of content other than text. By comparision, the Rich Text control allows selected text to be bold or italic or a different font. You can insert tables and pictures and even other Content Controls into Rich Text controls.

Picture
Picture Control Appearance

Finally! A true picture placeholder for Word! The picture can be set when the control is created. There are options to allow the user to replace it or not. Or it can be left blank (as shown) for the user to add a picture later. You can change the shape from a square using Picture Format>Picture Styles. This choice can also add a soft edge or other visual effects to a photo that the user inserts later.

It’s worth noting that Picture Content Controls only work as inline pictures. To float them and wrap text around them, you need to place the CC in a table cell or frame or some other object that allows text wrapping. These controls come in at 2″ square, but you can set numeric dimensions on the Picture Format tab. (Thanks to Timothy Rylatt for the tips!)

Building Block
Building Block Control Appearance

This is the only Content Control that doesn’t work yet on a Mac. While Building Blocks in the Windows version of Word is the same technology as AutoText on the Mac, Microsoft hasn’t gone the extra mile to tweak it for AutoText. But if your client needs it in their template, at least you can create it on a Mac.

Check Box
Checkbox Appearance

Similar to the Legacy Check Box form field, but with the added advantage that the filled symbol can be set to other symbols than an X. This control was added in Word 2010, so don’t include one for a client using 2007.

But still no radio buttons? Give me a break, Microsoft! Using elaborate VBA kludges, it’s possible to make a set of checkboxes operate like radio buttons with both Legacy and Content Control versions. But it shouldn’t be so hard!

Combo Box and Drop-Down
ComboBox and Dropdown Appearance

Another similar pair of controls. The Drop-Down is most similar to the Legacy Drop-Down (which MS often refers to as a Combo Box, just to confuse everyone). The Drop-Down restricts users to choosing an item on the list, while a Combo Box allows a user to enter a value that is not on the list.

Date Picker
Date Picker Appearance

While Legacy Text fields have a date option, it’s only to enforce date formatting after a user tries to enter a date. The Date Picker Content Control is way cooler, it’s pops a little calendar for the user to choose a date visually. Handy!

Repeating Section
Repeating Section Appearance

…And the prize for longest prompt text goes to this control. Added to Word 2013, so it won’t work for 2007 and 2010 clients. Clicking on the plus sign in the bottom right corner duplicates the content. There are already a couple of ways to do this, so I think this is strictly for user convenience. Unlike the others, this control spans the page by default, probably because of the long prompt.

Group

No screen capture for this one, because it’s more of an operation than a control. Applying this to a selected set of Content Controls will group them together, so they can be copied as a unit. You can’t include a Rich Text control, which can also be used as a group. If you select controls, then get an error when grouping that a control is “partially covered”, it will usually be about the topmost control. Add a carriage return before, include it when you select, then run the Group macro.


Simple Controls from Keyboard shortcuts

Fortunately, the VBA object model for Word 2016 and 2019 for Mac includes Content Controls. If you’re creating forms for your own use, there is a simple way to create basic Content Controls on your Mac:

  1. In Word, choose Tools>Customize Keyboard
  2. Scroll Categories and pick All Commands
  3. Scroll Commands and pick ContentControlCheckBox
  4. Click inside the Press new keyboard shortcut field and type a key combination. Word will inform you if that combination is already in use. If there is no conflict, or an insignificant conflict, click on the Assign button. Finally, click on OK. The Control key is a good modifier, because all existing keyboard shortcuts with Control are duplicates of ones that also use the Command key.
  5. Click on your document where you would like to see a checkbox, then use the keyboard shortcut. Viola! Instant checkbox!

Repeat the steps for the other Content Control commands. It’s not a bad idea to make a sample document with Content Controls and their shortcuts, for later reference. BTW, keyboard shortcuts are the only customization that can access Content Controls. Equivalent commands for the QAT and Ribbon haven’t been added as of this writing.


Content Controls for macOS: Complex Controls for Clients

The keyboard shortcuts are fine for plain vanilla controls. But they’re so basic, some are useless. Sure you can insert a Drop-Down or Combo Box, but they don’t have any items in the list and there’s no easy way to add them. What we need is more fine-grained control so we can set all the same options that a Windows user can. This is possible by inserting them using VBA.

If you never used macros in Word, start by making the Developer tab visible on the Ribbon. Choose Word>Preferences>View and check Show developer tab. The tab becomes visible when you close the Prefs panel.

On the Developer tab, click on the Visual Basic button (Word doesn’t run Visual Basic, but a very similar language called Visual Basic for Applications. This is VBA, not VB, but why would MS care about an accurate button title?). The VBA Editor opens. In the top left corner is a windows called Projects. If you have a fresh installation, you’ll only see Normal here. If you have Add-ins installed, there will be other project names. Select Normal.

From the macOS menu, choose Insert>Module. Call it ContentControls. A new module page is opened where you can insert macro code. Copy and paste the following code onto that page:

Sub AddRichTextCC()
  Dim oCC As ContentControl
  Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlRichText, Selection.Range)
  Set oCC = Nothing
End Sub
Sub AddPlainTextCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlText, Selection.Range)   With oCC     .MultiLine = True   End With   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddPictureCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlPicture, Selection.Range)   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddBuildingBlockCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlBuildingBlockGallery, Selection.Range)   With oCC     .BuildingBlockType = wdTypeAutoText   .BuildingBlockCategory = "General"   End With   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddCheckBoxCC()
  Dim oCC As ContentControl
  Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlCheckBox, Selection.Range)
  With oCC
    .Checked = False
    .SetCheckedSymbol CharacterNumber:=&HFE, Font:="Wingdings"
  .SetUncheckedSymbol CharacterNumber:=&HA8, Font:="Wingdings"
  End With
  Set oCC = Nothing
End Sub
Sub AddComboBoxCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlComboBox, Selection.Range)   With oCC     .DropdownListEntries.Add "Choose an item.", value:=""     .DropdownListEntries.Add "Item 1"     .DropdownListEntries.Add "Item 2"   End With   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddDropDownCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlDropdownList, Selection.Range)   With oCC   .DropdownListEntries.Add "Choose an item.", value:=""   .DropdownListEntries.Add "Item 1"   .DropdownListEntries.Add "Item 2"   End With   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddDatePickerCC()
  Dim oCC As ContentControl
  Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlDate, Selection.Range)
  With oCC
    .DateCalendarType = wdCalendarWestern
    .DateDisplayFormat = "MMMM d, yyyy"
  .DateDisplayLocale = wdEnglishUS
  End With
  Set oCC = Nothing
End Sub
Sub AddRepeatingSectionCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlRepeatingSection, Selection.Range)   With oCC     .AllowInsertDeleteSection = True   .RepeatingSectionItemTitle = "Repeating Section Item"   End With   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub
Sub AddGroupCC()   Dim oCC As ContentControl   Set oCC = ActiveDocument.ContentControls.Add(wdContentControlGroup, Selection.Range)   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub

Use the Tools>Customize Keyboard command to assign these macros keyboard shortcuts. You can also add them to the Quick Access Toolbar. If you subscribe to Office 365 or have Office 2019, you can also add them to the Ribbon.

If you take a close look at the code, you’ll see there are additional lines on some that allow you to set options for that type of control. As one example, the Date Picker includes options for the calendar type, date format and date language. In use, you would alter these options to suit the client, then run the macro to add a control with those options set.


Content Controls for macOS: Setting the Options

Here’s where you can really customize the Content Controls. These are generic options that can be set for all Content Controls. Rather than bulk up each individual macro, here’s one macro to set the extra options. Set the options in code, select a Content Control that you’ve already inserted, then run the macro. If you’re inserting many controls that have a common setting, like .LockControl = True, add that line to the code for inserting the control to avoid extra steps.

Sub SetOptions()
  If Selection.Information(wdInContentControl) Then
    With Selection.ParentContentControl
      'Sets the appearance to the original bounding box look. For the newer tags look, use wdContentControlTags
      'If you don't need to change a setting, comment it out before running the macro
      .Appearance = wdContentControlBoundingBox
      'Sets the color of the control to a preset color       .Color = wdColorWhite
      'Sets whether the Content Control can be deleted or not. If the control has had .Temporary = True applied, you must reverse that property to True before applying this.       .LockContentControl = True
      'Sets whether the contents of the Content Control can be deleted or not.       .LockContents = False
      'Sets the placeholder text or prompt for the control       .SetPlaceholderText , , "Default Text"
      'Sets the Content Control tag property       .Tag = "Tag"
      'If this is set to true, the Content Control will be removed when the contents are edited.       .Temporary = False
      'Sets the title of the Content Control. This appears on a tab above the control when it is activated.       .Title = "Title"     End With   Else     MsgBox "Please select a Content Control to change its options."   End If End Sub

Utility Macros

The following macros perform essential functions that may only be occasionally required. First, a pair to toggle all Content Controls between the older Bounding Box appearance and the newer Tags look. The only control that currently displays as a tag in macOS is the Group Content Control. All others appear as plain text in a mysterious field. As a consequence, don’t use this setting for forms to be used on a Mac. Save it for Windows clients:

Sub BoundingBoxAppearance() 'Sets all Content Controls in the document to a bounding box appearance
  Dim oCC As ContentControl
  For Each oCC In ActiveDocument.ContentControls
    oCC.Appearance = wdContentControlBoundingBox
  Next oCC
  Set oCC = Nothing
End Sub
Sub TagAppearance() 'Sets all Content Controls in the document to the tag appearance.   Dim oCC As ContentControl   For Each oCC In ActiveDocument.ContentControls     oCC.Appearance = wdContentControlTags   Next oCC   Set oCC = Nothing End Sub

This macro deletes the existing list of a Combo Box or Drop-Down and replaces it with a new list.

Sub ReviseComboBoxOrDropDownList()
  If Selection.Information(wdInContentControl) Then
    If Selection.ParentContentControl.Type = wdContentControlComboBox Or Selection.ParentContentControl.Type = wdContentControlDropdownList Then
      With Selection.ParentContentControl
        .DropdownListEntries.Clear
        .DropdownListEntries.Add "Choose an item.", value:=""
        .DropdownListEntries.Add Text:="List Item 1", value:="1"
        .DropdownListEntries.Add Text:="List Item 2", value:="2"
      End With
    End If
  Else
    MsgBox "Please select a Combo Box or Drop-Down Content Control to change its list."
  End If
End Sub

Finally, one to ungroup a Group Content Control. Switch to Tag view to see Groups, they’re invisble in Bounding Box view. Don’t try to select all group items before ungrouping, it will generate an error. Instead, single-click anywhere inside the group:

Sub UnGroupCC() 'Ungroups a group control
  If Selection.Information(wdInContentControl) Then
    Selection.ParentContentControl.Ungroup
  End If
End Sub

For more in-depth reference on these macros, please see Microsoft’s documentation.

Now you’re equipped to send your client top-quality fillable forms with the latest technology. So when your client asks if you can create Content Controls, instead of saying “Huh?”, you can reply confidently “No problem!”

Shared Workgroup Templates – Best Practices

Groups of workers usually use the same templates. But it can be time-consuming to keep everyone updated when templates are installed separately on each desktop. Instead, you can implement shared workgroup templates with a feature already built into Office.


Shared Workgroup Templates – Multiple Uses

Every desktop version of Office, Mac and Windows, includes a Workgroup templates option that allows you to set a network share as a templates folder. Templates on this share are instantly available to all users, making updates and revisions a breeze. Automatically, everyone in the office is using the same version. As long as template names remain identical, then old Word documents automatically attach themselves to the new template.

The Workgroup templates network share can serve more that just templates. With some additional subfolders, it can be a source for Document Themes, including custom SuperThemes, it can hold collection of Font and Color themes. These additional files don’t show in the File>New dialog. Theme files display under the Themes dropdown, theme colors under the Colors dropdown and theme fonts under the Fonts dropdown.


Shared Workgroup Templates – Setup

To set up shared workgroup templates, first create the network location and ensure it’s accessible to all in the office without a signin. Each computer should connect to the share automatically on restart, so users don’t have to remember to manually connect before creating a new document. Create subfolders with the following names for othe file types you want to support. Document Themes for themes, with subfolders for Theme Colors and Theme Fonts. All versions of Office expect exactly the same file structure.

If the office uses Group Policies to install and configure software, you can use that feature to add the Workgroup Template location to each user installation. If you’re using “sneakernet” for configuration, here’s how to do it manually. All Office suites use a setting in Word to set the location for all the other programs

Office 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 for Windows

  1. In Word, choose File>Options>Advanced.
  2. Scroll down to the General section of Advanced and click on the File Locations… button.
  3. Select the Workgroup templates line, then click on the Modify button.
  4. In the dialog that opens, enter the path to the network share in the Folder name field, or use the window controls to navigate to the folder. Select the folder and click on OK. OK all the way out and close Word

Office 2007 for Windows

  1. In Word, click on the Office button, then on Word Options, then on Advanced..
  2. Scroll down to the General section of Advanced and click on the File Locations… button.
  3. Select the Workgroup templates line, then click on the Modify button.
  4. In the dialog that opens, enter the path to the network share in the Folder name field, or use the window controls to navigate to the folder. Select the folder and click on OK. OK all the way out and close Word.

Office 2003 and earlier for Windows

  1. In Word, choose Tools>Options and click on the File Locations tab.
  2. Select the Workgroup templates line, then click on the Modify button.
  3. In the dialog that opens, enter the path to the network share in the Folder name field, or use the window controls to navigate to the folder. Select the folder and click on OK. OK all the way out and close Word.

Office 2016 and 2019 for Mac

  1. In Word, choose Word>Preferences>File Locations.
  2. Select the Workgroup templates line, then click on the Modify button.
  3. In the dialog that opens, use the window controls to navigate to the folder. Select the folder and click on Open. OK out and close Word

Office 2011 and earlier for Mac

  1. In Word, choose Word>Preferences>File Locations.
  2. Select the Workgroup templates line, then click on the Modify button.
  3. In the dialog that opens, use the window controls to navigate to the folder. Select the folder and click on Choose. OK out and close Word

Shared Workgroup Templates in Use

Here’s how to access Workgroup templates in Office programs

Office 2016 and 2019 for Windows

  1. Choose File>New.
  2. Click on Custom.
  3. Click on Workgroup Templates, select a template, then click on Create.

Office 2013 for Windows

  1. Choose FILE>New.
  2. Click on SHARED.
  3. Click on a template.

Office 2010 for Windows

  1. Choose File>New>My Templates.
  2. On the Personal Templates tab, select a template, then click on OK. This tab also shows local templates on the user’s computer.

Office 2007 for Windows

  1. Click on the Office button, then on New.
  2. Click on My templates…
  3. Select the My Templates tab. Workgroup templates are displayed along with local templates in the same pane.

Office 2003 and earlier for Windows

  1. Click on File>New. The New Document pane opens at the side of the window.
  2. On the New Document pane, click on On my computer…
  3. Select a template from the General pane and click on OK. This pane shows a mix of local and workgroup templates.

Office 2016 and 2019 for Mac

  1. Choose File>New from Template…. The Document Gallery opens
  2. In the upper left corner, click on the Work link. This link only appears when you have a Workgroup Templates location set in Preferences.
  3. Select a template, then click on Create.

Office 2011 for Mac

  1. Choose File>New from Template. The Document Gallery opens.
  2. Click on Workgroup Templates in the left-hand TEMPLATES list..
  3. Select a template and click on Choose.

Office 2008 for Mac

  1. Choose File>Project Gallery. The Project Gallery opens.
  2. Click on My Templates in the left-hand Category list..
  3. Select a template and click on Open. This window will show a mix of Workgroup and local templates.

Shared Workgroup Templates – Shortcomings

In addition to templates and themes, a local templates folder also serves custom Chart and SmartArt templates. Neither of these formats is supported by Workgroup Templates, so those templates must still be installed locally on each user’s computer.

OOXML Hacking: Fix Broken PowerPoint Links

Please note: Microsoft has modified the nature of OLE links. It’s no longer possible to maintain relative OLE links (linked Excel and Word) in current versions of Office. The directions below will allow you to re-establish a broken link, but when you update the linked file, PowerPoint will write an abolute path. If you’re relinking other object types, like images, audio or video, this article will allow you to create permanent relative, semi-relative and absolute paths.

Someone sends you a presentation linked to an Excel file. The links don’t work and you can’t fix them without redoing them. Here’s how to fix broken PowerPoint links with a one minute of XML Hacking.

This article is really just for PowerPoint for Mac users. If you have the Windows version, you can fix broken links by choosing File>Info, then clicking on Edit Links to Files in the right-hand column under Related Documents. (Please note, the Edit Links option only appears if you actually have a link in the open presentation.) Word and Excel for Mac already have utilities to fix links.

If you haven’t hacked XML before, please read XML Hacking: An Introduction and XML Hacking: Editing in macOS. This article mentions Excel, which I’ve used as an example, but the same advice is true for Word files linked to PowerPoint. OLE Links to other formats, like PDF, are simply not supported on macOS.

In Office, links to documents include the complete path. Of course, when you move those linked files to a new computer, the path is always different, so the links must be corrected. The symptoms of a broken link depends on the type of link that was created. If the file creator selected a workbook section or chart, then used Paste Special to paste in a link, you’ll see this message when you double-click on the Excel excerpt:

Fix Broken PowerPoint Links - Paste Special

But the creator may have used Insert>Object instead, and chosen to link rather than embed the file. Then you’ll see this when you try to edit:

Fix Broken PowerPoint Links - Inserted Object

Then after dismissing that dialog, you’ll see the first one about the server error.


Fix Broken PowerPoint Links – The Steps

The issue is that a path is embedded in the PowerPoint file, and that path must be edited. Open the file in BBEdit.

The XML we need to change is associated with the slide(s) on which the Excel item is placed. So lets look. In the left-hand window, click on ppt. Then select slides then the _rels folder. Rels is short for relationships, and it’s the mechanism in every OOXML folder that tells PowerPoint where to find the objects in use.

The _rels folder has a .rels file for each slide in the presentation. Open the file for the slide containing the linked Excel. If the link was inserted using Paste Special, it will look like this (Pay attention to the third line and scroll all the way to the right. The path to be edited is in bold):

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<Relationships xmlns="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/relationships">
  <Relationship Id="rId3" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/oleObject" Target="file:///\\192.168.1.250\Dockets\Test\Excel\Link2PowerPoint.xlsx!Sheet1!R1C1:R1C4" TargetMode="External"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId2" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/slideLayout" Target="../slideLayouts/slideLayout7.xml"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId1" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/vmlDrawing" Target="../drawings/vmlDrawing1.vml"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId4" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/image" Target="../media/image1.emf"/>
</Relationships>

If the Excel file has been inserted as an linked object, it won’t include a range of cells, just the workbook name:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="yes"?>
<Relationships xmlns="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/relationships">
  <Relationship Id="rId3" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/oleObject" Target="file:///\\192.168.1.250\Dockets\Test\Excel\Link2PowerPoint.xlsx" TargetMode="External"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId2" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/slideLayout" Target="../slideLayouts/slideLayout7.xml"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId1" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/vmlDrawing" Target="../drawings/vmlDrawing2.vml"/>
  <Relationship Id="rId4" Type="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/officeDocument/2006/relationships/image" Target="../media/image2.emf"/>
</Relationships>

Since the Excel item was inserted on a Windows computer, the path uses backslashes instead of forward slashes. There are two path syntaxes that are acceptable. If both the file linked to and the presentation containing the link are in your User folder, you can use a relative path and the linked file will open up immediately. If the file linked to is on a network share or somewhere on your disk outside your user folder, you will have to use an absolute path and you will get a challenge from Office when you open the link.

Let’s do the relative path first. In this example, the Excel file is in my user Documents folder and the PowerPoint is in my user Downloads folder. So I edit:

Target="file:///\\192.168.1.250\Dockets\Test\Excel\Link2PowerPoint.xlsx"

to:

Target="file:///../Documents/Test/Excel/Link2PowerPoint.xlsx"

In Unix/DOS speak, the 2 dots mean “go up one level”, out of the Downloads folder where the presentation is into the main user folder. Then the slashes lead you down into the Documents folder and subfolders to the Excel location. Once you set a relative path, you must leave the PowerPoint file in the same folder. Moving it will break the path.


Fix Broken PowerPoint Links – The Best Relative Path

For a linked file that you know will be moved from desktop to desktop, the best strategy is to place both files in the same folder. Then use this path:

Target="file:///Link2PowerPoint.xlsx"

Now even if you move it back to Windows, the linked Excel file will open as expected. As I noted above, when you open or update the linked Excel (or Word) file, PowerPoint will replace your relative path with an absolute one. This only happens with OLE links. For picture, audio, video and other file types, the relative link will remain unless you manually update.


Fix Broken PowerPoint Links – Absolute Paths

If the file to be linked to is on another disk, use an absolute path. With an absolute path, you can move the PowerPoint file anywhere on your computer or to other machines and it will still be able to find the linked file. Here’s what an absolute path looks like:

Target="file:///Volumes/TheNameOfYourHardDisk/Users/YourUserName/Documents/Test/Excel/Link2PowerPoint.xlsx"

Important! A macOS absolute path must begin with Volumes, followed by a slash and the name of the disk. If your network is set up for different operating systems, you’ll probably use an IP address instead, as shown in the original file path. Consult with your IT department.

Office 2016 for Mac applications are sandboxed applications, so when you first open an Office file linked with an absolute path, you’ll see a warning:


Fix Broken PowerPoint Links - Absolute Path Warning 1

Click on Select…, then you’ll see:

Fix Broken PowerPoint Links - Absolute Path Warning 1

Select the correct file if it isn’t already selected, then click on Grant Access. Now double-click on the linked Excel item to edit and you’ll see this again:

Fix Broken PowerPoint Links - Edit Warning

OK, that’s something of a hassle, but the good thing is that you won’t see those warnings again as long as the linked file says in the same place with the same name. You also only get warned once per placed file, even if there are multiple uses of that file in your presentation.

Linked files are a huge benefit when you have a data source that is constantly being updated. Using them means your presentation can always be up to date. Now that you know how to fix the links, you have a very useful new tool.

OOXML Hacking: Add a Table of Contents to the TOC Gallery

In Word for Windows, you can select a Table of Contents and then add it to the TOC Gallery using References>Table of Contents>Save Selection to Table of Contents Gallery (highlighted in red below):

Add a Table of Contents to the TOC Gallery

Unfortunately, Mac versions of Word do not share this feature. But it’s a super-simple hack. If you are new to XML editing, please read XML Hacking: An Introduction. MacOS users should also read XML Hacking: Editing in macOS to avoid a couple of Mac-specific XML issues. The latter article now mentions the free XML editing plugin for the Chrome browser in the July 2018 update.

You can also use this hack to add content to other Word Galleries, like the Cover Page Gallery. Please see the last section of this article for the details.


Add a Table of Contents to the TOC Gallery – The Steps

Make sure you’re working on a template rather than a document. We’ll be using AutoText, and AutoText is saved to the template. If you’re working on a document, the AutoText would get saved to the template attached to the document, not the document itself.

  • Start by making the invisible characters visible, using Word>Preferences…>View and checking All in the Show Non-Printing Characters section.
  • Now select the custom Table of Contents, making sure to include the paragraph mark just below it.
  • Choose Insert>AutoText>AutoText….
  • Set the Look in: dropdown to the name of the template you’re working on.
  • In the Enter AutoText entries here: field, give the AutoText entry a sensible name like Clientname Custom TOC.
  • Click on the Add button and save the template. Close Word.
  • Open the template file in your text editor or Chrome browser with the OOXML plugin.
  • Navigate to word/glossary and open document.xml, the home of all AutoText.
  • Search for the name you gave the TOC AutoText entry. The first few lines should look something like this:
  <w:docParts>
    <w:docPart>
      <w:docPartPr>
        <w:name w:val="Brandwares Custom TOC"/>
        <w:style w:val="TOC 2"/>
        <w:category>
          <w:name w:val="General"/>
          <w:gallery w:val="docParts"/>
        </w:category>
        <w:behaviors>
          <w:behavior w:val="content"/>
        </w:behaviors>
        <w:guid w:val="{DBD01F60-383F-C040-9417-745701ADCDFD}"/>
      </w:docPartPr>
  • Make 2 changes in the <w:category> section:
    1. Change the w:name value from General to a more meaningful name like Custom TOC. This will display as the heading under which your custom TOC appears.
    2. Change the w:gallery value from docParts to tblOfContents. This is the crucial step that makes the TOC appear in the TOC Gallery.
  <w:docParts>
    <w:docPart>
      <w:docPartPr>
        <w:name w:val="Brandwares Custom TOC"/>
        <w:style w:val="TOC 2"/>
        <w:category>
          <w:name w:val="Custom TOC"/>
          <w:gallery w:val="tblOfContents"/>
        </w:category>
        <w:behaviors>
          <w:behavior w:val="content"/>
        </w:behaviors>
        <w:guid w:val="{DBD01F60-383F-C040-9417-745701ADCDFD}"/>
      </w:docPartPr>
  • Resave the template file, close the editor and open it in Word.
  • Choose References>Table of Contents, scroll down to the Custom TOC section and choose your custom TOC.

Final Custom TOC in TOC Gallery


Add Content to the Other Word Galleries

You can use exactly the same steps to add a custom cover to the Cover Gallery. Just change the w:category w:name value to Custom Covers and the w:gallery value to coverPg. Use the table below to find the values used for other gallery type.

Please note, the category names are Microsoft defaults, and yes, they are inconsistent whether they spell it Built-in or Built-In. Using these will group your entry with them. If you want your own category, just use a different word or phrase and Word will add it on the fly. To make the category pop to the top of a list, include a space in front of the name (Thanks to Timothy Rylatt for the suggestion):

Gallery Type w:category w:name Values w:gallery Value
Bibliographies Built-In bib
Cover Pages Built-In coverPg
Equations Built-In eq
Footers Built-in ftrs
Headers Built-In hdrs
Page Numbers Page X, Page X of Y, Plain Number, Plain Text, With Shapes pgNum
Page Numbers (Bottom of Page) Page X, Page X of Y, Plain Number, Simple, With Shapes pgNumB
Page Numbers (Margins) Page X, Plain Number, With Shapes pgNumMargins
Page Numbers (Top of Page) Page X, Page X of Y, Plain Number, Simple, With Shapes pgNumT
Placeholders General placeholder
Table of Contents Built-In tblOfContents
Tables Built-In tbls
Text Boxes Built-in txtBox
Watermarks Confidential, Disclaimers, Urgent watermarks

If this looks too geeky for you, we’re glad to help! Brandwares is full-service template creation service specializing in working with graphic designers and corporations. Contact me at production@brandwares.com.